chemistry important questions class 12

Chemistry Important questions class 12: How to pass chemistry

Some Chemistry important questions for class 12 are listed according to the board pattern asked in previous papers/years.

Chemistry Part – 1

Chapter1: Solid State – 4M

Classification of solids based on different forces, molecular. ionic. covalent and metallic solids. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. packing in solids. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. Band theory of metals. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors

Chapter 2: Solutions and colligative properties – 5M

Types of solutions. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. solubility of gases in liquids. solid solutions. Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. depression of freezing point. osmotic pressure.  Van’t Hoff factor and calculations.

Chapter 3: Chemical thermodynamics and energetic –   6M

 Concepts of system. types of systems. surroundings. Work. heat. energy. extensive and intensive properties. state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy.

Hess’ law of constant heat summation. enthalpy of bond dissociation. combustion. formation. atomization. sublimation. Phase transition. ionization and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function.

Second and third law of thermodynamics.

Chapter 4: Electrochemistry – 5M

Redox reactions. conductance in electrolytic solutions. specific and molar conductivity. variations of conductivity with concentration.

Kohlrausch’s Law. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). dry cell –electrolytic and galvanic cells; lead accumulator. EMF of a cell. standard electrode potential.

Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. fuel cells, corrosion. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell.

Chptr 6: General principles & processes of isolation of elements – 3M

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. oxidation. reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. copper. zinc and iron

Chemistry part – 2

Chapter 9: Coordination compounds – 3M

IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding,

 Werner’s theory. VBT. CFT. isomerism. (structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds .

Chapter 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) – 4M

Haloalkanes :-Nomenclature. nature of C-X bond. physical and chemical properties. mechanism of substitution reactions. R-S and d-l configuration

Haloarenes :- Nature of C-X bond. substitution reactions stability of carbocations. R-S and d-l configurations.

Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. thrichloromethane. tetrachloromethane. iodoform. freons. DDT.  

Chapter 11 : Alcohols, phenols and ethers Alcohols – 5M

Nomenclature. methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties . identification of primary. secondary and tertiary alcohols. mechanism of dehydration. uses of methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature. methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties. acidic nature of phenol. electro phillic substitution reactions. uses of phenols.

Ethers : Nomenclature. methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties. uses.

Chapter 12 : Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids Aldehydes and ketones -5M 

Nomenclature. nature of carbonyl group. methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

Carboxylic acids : Nomenclature. acidic nature. methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties, uses.

Chapter 13: Organic compounds containing nitrogen – 4M

Nitro compounds- General methods of preparation and chemical reactions

Amines : Nomenclature. classification. structure. methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties. uses. identification of primary. secondary and tertiary amines.

Chapter  14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates – 4M

Classification (aldoses and ketoses). monosaccahrides d-l configuration [glucose and fructose]. oligosaccharides [sucrose. lactose. Maltose]. polysaccharides [starch. cellulose. Glycogen]. importance.

Proteins: Elementary idea of α -amino acids. peptide. linkage. polypeptides. proteins; structure of amines-primary. secondary. tertiary structure and quaternary structures. denaturation ofproteins; enzymes. Lipids and hormones  excluding structure. their classification and functions.

Vitamins: Classification and functions. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA

Chapter 15: Polymers – 3M

Classification – natural and synthetic. methods of polymerization – addition and condensation. copolymerization. Some important polymers, natural and synthetic like polythene.

Nylon. polyesters. bakelite. and rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Chapter 16: Chemistry in everyday life -3M

Chemicals in medicines :- analgesics. tranquilizers. antiseptics. disinfectants. antimicrobials. antifertility drugs. antibiotics. antacids. Antihistamines antioxidants.

Chemicals in food :- Preservatives. artificial sweetening agents.

Cleansing agents : – Soaps and detergents. Cleansing action.

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