IMp theory answer brief questions answers class 12 2023

Important Questions class 12 IT 2023

By taking into consideration of many previous years HSC Board exams for Information Technology Subject I have jotted some “Important Questions class 12 IT 2023” based on the new board paper pattern.

In your Information Technology subject “ANSWER THE FOLLOWING” also helps you to score 10 marks that add up to your total IT board exams marks of 80. For a single question asked you can write pointwise answers at least 4 points that carries 2 marks.

IMP Answer the following in brief Questions and answers 2023

Important Questions class 12 IT 2023

1) Explain Inline frame with attributes of it?


  • The <iframe> element creates an inline frame within a web page. This means that you can embed another HTML document or website within the current page.
  • Inline frames are often used in online advertising, where the contents of the <iframe> is an advertisement from an external party. This allows websites to display ads without having to host the ad content on their own servers.
  • HTML 5 allows for the incorporation of iframes to be seamless. This means that you can remove scrollbars, borders, margins, and other elements that would otherwise be visible on the embedded content.
  • Iframes can be used for a variety of purposes beyond just advertising, such as embedding videos or other multimedia content, displaying maps, or even creating a separate area for chat or other interactive features. However, it’s important to use iframes judiciously, as they can slow down page loading times if not used properly.
  • The attributes of <iframe> are as follows:
  1. Src
  2. Height
  3. Width
  4. Name
  5. Srcdoc

2) Explain the process of Accounting software in short.



  1. Creation of company/ organisation
  2. Creation of Ledger giving appropriate groups
  3. Selection of correct voucher 
  4. GST Calculation 
  5. Posting of transaction into the Accounting/ Inventory Voucher
  6. Reports such as balance sheet, Income and Expenditure, Cash/ bank flow statement etc Generated Automatically.
  7. Printing of reports.

3) Explain phases of trade cycle.


There are four phases in trade cycle.

  1.  Pre sales:  This phase can be further classified in two steps like Search and Negotiate. In search the customer searches for the required website for the product to be purchased. In Negotiating step the customers find a supplier who offers good quality products at cheaper rates. 
  2. Execution: This phase can further classified in to two steps order and delivery. Customer sends an order for the selected product and after processing the order customer receives delivery of the product. 
  3. Settlements:  This phase consists of Invoice and payment. invoice means customer will recieve a bill for purchased product and after confirmation received product, customer will pay for the same. 
  4. After-Sales: The phase consists of warranty and after sales services. In warranty period, customer will get all maintenance services for free or at minimum cost. After pre sales services means if customers do any compliant about the product and gets maintenance services from the supplie

Important Questions class 12 IT 2023 for commerce stream

4) Explain Title Bar and Menu Bar of Base? 


  1. Title Bar: It is a topmost bar present on the screen of base. It displays icon of the application, name of the application. By default it displays ‘filename.odb – Libre office base’. It consists of three buttons on the right corner as minimize, maximize, close.
  2. Menu Bar: It is present below Title bar. It displays names of different menus as file, edit, view, insert, tools, windows, help, etc.

5) Write 2 Advantages of E-commerce. 


  1. Global Scope: Ecommerce provides the sellers with a global reach. 
  2. Electronic Transactions: E-commerce reduces the paper work and significantly lower the transaction cost. 
  3. Anytime Shopping: One other great advantage is the convenient. A customer can shop 24×7. The website is functional at all times. 

6) List down different modules of ERP system?


 There are many modules or sub-units of ERP system. Some are mentioned below.

  1. Financial module: This module is the core of many ERP software packages. It can collect financial data from various functional departments and generate valuable financial reports. Financial Reports includes balance sheets, financial statements, etc. 
  2. Manufacturing module: Manufacturing module contains necessary business rules to manage the entire production process. This module of ERP enables an enterprise to combine technology and business processes to get integrated solutions. 
  3. Production Planning module: This module is used for optimizing the utilization of available resources and helps the organization to plan their production. This module identifies the materials required, allocates optimal resources using data and sales forecasting with the sale data.
  4. HR module: HR stands for Human Resource. HR module maintains an updated and complete employee database including personal information, salary details, attendance, performance, promotion, etc. 

7) Explain SEO? Explain types of SEO?


SEO stands for “Search Engine Optimization”. It is the practice of optimizing a website or a piece of content to rank higher in search engine results pages (SERPs) for specific keywords or phrases. The goal of SEO is to increase the visibility and traffic of a website or content in search engines such as Google, Bing, and Yahoo.

There are three main types of SEO:

  1. On-page SEO: On-page SEO involves optimizing the content and HTML source code of a website or page to make it more search engine friendly. This includes optimizing the title tags, meta descriptions, header tags, images, and internal links on a website or page.
  1. Off-page SEO: Off-page SEO involves optimizing external factors that can affect a website’s ranking, such as backlinks from other websites, social media signals, and online mentions. Building high-quality backlinks is one of the most important aspects of off-page SEO.
  1. Technical SEO: Technical SEO involves optimizing the technical aspects of a website or page to ensure it is accessible to search engines and users. This includes optimizing website speed, mobile-friendliness, crawlability, and site architecture.

8) Describe the process of Encryption?


  1. Encryption is widely used on the internet to protect user information being sent between a browser and server.
  2. The Encryption consists of two Processes i) Encryption and ii) Decryption.
  3. Encryption converts Plain text ( Readable form of data) into Cipher text ( Coded form of data) means non-readable form of data .
  4. Decryption is the opposite of Encryption. Which means it converts Ciphertext into plain text.

9) Explain M-commerce?


  1. M-commerce refers to the exchange of goods and services using wireless devices, like smartphones and tablets.
  2. This technology enables users to access online shopping platforms without relying on desktop computers. 
  3. M-commerce has several applications, including mobile banking, e-bill payment, and ticket booking, among others.

10) What is E-Governance?


  1. E-governance involves using Information Technology to streamline government processes. 
  2. Its primary aim is to simplify procedures for all stakeholders, including citizens, businesses, and government agencies, at every level. 
  3. Through E-governance, governments can provide SMART services – Simple, Moral, Accessible, Responsive, and Transparent – to all.

11) List out advantages of E-commerce?


Advantages of E-commerce:

  1. Global scope: E-commerce provides the sellers with a global reach. Now sellers and buyers can meet in the virtual world, without the barrier of place.
  2. Electronic transaction: E-commerce reduces the paperwork and significantly lower the transaction cost.
  3. Anytime shopping: The great advantage of E-commerce is the convenience. A customer can shop 24 × 7.
  4. No intermediaries: Electronic commerce also allows the customer and the business to be in touch directly, without any intermediaries.

Important Questions class 12 IT 2023

12) Which are the different types of E-governance?


E-governance is of four types

  1. Government to Citizen (G2C):
    (i) The Government to citizen refers to the government services which enable citizens to get access to a wide variety of public services.
    (ii) Most of the government services fall under G2C.
    (iii) A citizen can have access to the services anytime from anywhere.
    (iv) Services like license renewals and paying tax are essential in G2C.
    (v) It also focuses on geographic land barriers.
  1. Government to Business (G2B):
    (i) G2B is the exchange of services between Government and Business organizations.
    (ii) G2B provides access to relevant forms needed to comply.
    (iii) The G2B consists of many services exchanged between business sectors and government.
    (iv) It aims at eliminating paperwork, cost and establishes transparency in the business environment while interacting with the government.
  1. Government to Government (G2G):
    (i) The Government to Government refers to the interaction between different government departments, organizations, and agencies.
    (ii) In G2G government agencies can share the same database using online communication.
    (iii) The government departments can work together.
    (iv) G2G services can be at the local level or international level.
    (v) It provides a safe and secure inter relationship between domestic or foreign government.
  1. Government to Employee (G2E):
    (i) The Government to Employee is the internal part of G2G sector.
    (ii) G2E aims to bring employees together and improvise knowledge sharing.
    (iii) G2E provides online facilities to the employees like applying for leave, reviewing salary payment records, and checking the balance of the holiday.
    (iv)This sector provides human resource training and development.
    (v) Examples of successful implementation of E-governance are e-Mitra, e-Seva project, CET (Common Entrance Test).

13) Write any four advantages of E-governance.

Ans : 

Advantages of E-governance are:

  • Improves delivery and efficiency of government services
  • Improved government interactions with business and industry
  • Citizen empowerment through access to information
  • More efficient government management
  • Less corruption in the administration

14) Explain any two features of PHP?

Ans : 

PHP is the most popular and frequently used worldwide server-side scripting language.

Following are features of PHP:

  1. Simple: It is very simple and easy to use, as compared to other scripting languages.
  2. Interpreted: It is an interpreted language, i.e. there is no need for compilation.
  3. Faster: It is faster than other scripting languages e.g. JSP and ASP.
  4. Open Source: Open source means you need not pay for use of PHP. You can freely download and use it.

15) What are the rules for declaring variables in PHP?


Following are the rules for declaring variables in PHP:

  1. A variable starts with the $ sign, followed by the name of the variable
  2. A variable name must start with a letter or the underscore character
  3. A variable name cannot start with a number
  4. A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (A-z, 0-9, and_)
  5. Variable names are case-sensitive ($age and $AGE are two different variables)

16)  What is server-side scripting?

Answer : 

  1. A server is a computer system that serves as a central control of data and programs shared by clients.
  2. The server-side environment that runs a scripting language is termed a web server.
  3. A user’s request is fulfilled by running a script directly on the web server.
  4. It is used to provide interactive websites.
  5. Programming languages for server-side programming are PHP, Python, JSP.

17) Give some applications of lOT.

Answer : 

Following are some applications of lOT:

  1. Smart thermostats – Allows users to schedule, monitor and remotely control home temperatures.
  2. Smart lighting – The illumination of light is controlled on the basis of day light.
  3. Smart locks and garage door openers, Password-based or facial recognition-based doors and locks.
  4. Smart security cameras – Security cameras that can identify known and unknown persons and raise alarm, in case of security threat.
  5. Smart traffic signals – Signal that can adjust their commutes and holiday traffic and keep cars moving.

18)  Explain in detail about cloud computing.

Answer : 

  1. Cloud computing provides computer resources over the internet without direct user management, allowing users to access the resources they need on-demand.
  2. There are three primary service models of cloud computing: IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS, each providing a different level of abstraction and control over the underlying infrastructure.
  3. IaaS offers automated and scalable environments with high degree of control and flexibility for the user.
  4. PaaS involves a cloud-based environment where users can develop, manage, and deliver applications.
  5. SaaS delivers software and applications through the internet or an API.
  6. There are three basic types of cloud deployment: Public, Private, and Hybrid.
  7. Public cloud manages all services and supporting infrastructure off-site over the internet and is shared across multiple users.
  8. Private cloud provides IT services through the internet or a private network to selected users.
  9. Hybrid cloud combines both public and private cloud elements, allowing organizations to take advantage of the benefits of both while maintaining greater control over their data and infrastructure.

19) Give brief idea about Al.


  • Artificial Intelligence involves creating intelligent machines that can perform tasks like humans.
  • AI is not the same as robotics, but it is related in that both involve machines sensing their environment, performing calculations, and completing physical tasks.
  • There are various fields of AI, including machine learning, neural networks, deep learning, and natural language processing.
  • Machine learning is focused on computer algorithms that can improve themselves through experience.
  • Neural networks mimic the brain’s interconnected neurons and use these connections to derive meaning from data.
  • Deep learning uses large neural networks and computing power to identify complex patterns in data, such as in image or speech recognition.
  • Natural language processing involves analyzing and understanding human language and responding appropriately.

20)  Explain the concept of 5G.


  • 5G is the fifth generation of cellular network technology, which provides faster and more efficient wireless communication.
  • 5G is expected to provide Internet connections that are multiple times faster than 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution).
  • 5G technology may use a variety of spectrum bands, including millimeter wave (mmWave) radio spectrum, which can carry very large amounts of data at a short distance.
  • The drawback of higher frequencies is that they are more easily obstructed by the walls of buildings, trees and other foliage, and even changes in the weather.
  • The new 5G networks will be able to transmit very large amounts of data but only a few blocks at a time, as the service area covered by providers is divided into small geographical areas called cells.
  • 5G can support up to a million devices per square kilometer, which is significantly higher compared to 4G.

21)  What are the similarities and differences between Client-side Scripting and Server-side Scripting?


Client-side Scripting:

  • Used at the frontend visible from the browser
  • Does not require server interaction
  • Involves languages such as HTML5, JavaScript, etc.
  • Used for validation purposes

Server-side Scripting:

  • Used at the backend, source code is not visible to the client browser
  • Communication with server is required
  • Involves languages such as PHP, ASP.NET, Python, etc.
  • Useful in customizing web pages and implementing dynamic changes in the website

22) Briefly explain features of JavaScript.


  • JavaScript is a lightweight scripting language that can be used on the client-side.
  • No special software is required to run JavaScript programs, as it is supported by all modern web browsers.
  • JavaScript is an object-oriented language, allowing for the creation of objects and classes.
  • Date and time can be handled effectively using JavaScript, with built-in functions and libraries.
  • JavaScript is a case-sensitive language, meaning that variables and functions must be spelled and capitalized correctly.

23) Define SEO and State types of SEO.


Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a set of practices aimed at improving the quality and quantity of traffic to a website through organic search results. By optimizing a website, it can attract more visitors and increase its visibility online.

To achieve this, various strategies and techniques are used to optimize webpages. There are two main types of SEO:

  • On-Page SEO: This includes creating quality content, selecting relevant keywords, placing keywords appropriately, giving proper titles to every page, etc. On-Page SEO focuses on the content that is displayed to users, such as text, images, and website navigation.
  • Off-Page SEO: This involves link building, increasing link popularity by submitting to open directories, search engines, link exchange, etc. Off-Page SEO is concerned with the website’s relationship with other websites.

Important Questions class 12 IT 2023

24)  Which are the different SEO techniques?


  • SEO techniques can be categorized into two types: White Hat SEO and Black Hat SEO.
  • White Hat SEO techniques are recommended by search engines as part of good design practices.
  • White Hat SEO involves proper image labeling and the use of Standard-compliant HTML.
  • Black Hat SEO techniques are not approved by search engines and are used to manipulate search results.
  • Black Hat SEO may involve the use of duplicate content and redirecting users to other websites to increase traffic.

25) Explain in short White Hat technique.


  • White Hat SEO techniques are recommended by search engines as part of good design.
  • White Hat SEO includes the use of properly labeled images that are relevant to the content.
  • Standard-compliant HTML is used in White Hat SEO.
  • White Hat SEO utilizes unique page titles that are relevant to the content.
  • White Hat SEO involves the use of complete sentences with good spelling and grammar.

26) Explain in short Black Hat technique.


  • Black Hat SEO involves techniques that search engines disapprove of and are used to optimize a website.
  • It often includes duplicated content that is stolen from original creators without proper credit or permission.
  • Black Hat SEO websites are often used to redirect users to other sites and generate traffic.
  • Links from these sites may be irrelevant to the actual search content and contain invisible text and keyword stuffing.

27)  Explain any two Page content optimization points.


  • The <TITLE> tag is the first thing that users see in the search results when using Google.
  • The contents of the <TITLE> tag should be limited to 60 characters, including spaces.
  • The Meta description tag is used to improve On-Page SEO when creating a web page.
  • The recommended length for the Meta description is between 70 and 160 characters, including spaces.
  • The Meta description should provide a brief summary of the contents of the webpage and pique the interest of potential visitors.

This “Important Questions class 12 IT 2023″ will help you get an idea about how to write the answers pointwise for 2 marks in your IT Hsc board exam conducted online.

HSC IT sample paper 2023 with solutions Click to download

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